Cold War Multiple-Choice Exam (PDF Download)

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Cold War Test

This Cold War test consists of 28 multiple-choice questions and 4 documents. Suggested point system: 3 points for each multiple-choice question and 4 points for each document. You can download a PDF of this exam and the answer key by clicking on the button below. It includes a Google Forms version of the exam.

1) The political policies of the Soviet Union traditionally emphasized the

                1.           voice of the people

                2.           a trend towards theocracy

                3.           production of consumer goods

                4.           heavy censorship

2) Which is generally a characteristic of a communist economy?

                1.           investment is encouraged by the promise of large profits

                2.           the role of government in the economy is restricted by law

                3.           government agencies are involved in production planning

                4.           entrepreneurs sell shares in their companies to the government

3) One reason the Soviet Union formed the Warsaw Pact was to

                1.           ease the transition to democracy

                2.           help institute capitalism in Eastern Europe

                3.           limit the threat of invasion from Western Europe

                4.           challenge the economic successes of the Common Market

4) Which statement best describes most Eastern European countries immediately after World War II? They

                1.           adopted democratic reforms in their political systems

                2.           became satellite states of the Soviet Union

                3.           became dependent on aid provided by the Marshall Plan

                4.           emerged as world economic powers

5) Communist governments were established in most nations of Eastern Europe shortly after World War II because

                1.           the region had a long tradition of strong communist parties

                2.           communist governments were able to significantly increase agricultural productivity

                3.           the Soviet Union used military and diplomatic pressures to install their governments

                4.           members of the Communist party won free elections in these nations

6) During the Cold War Era (1945-1990), the United States and the Soviet Union were reluctant to become involved in direct military conflict mainly because of

                1.           the peacekeeping role of the United Nations

 2.           pressure from nonaligned nations

                3.           the potential for global nuclear destruction

                4.           increased tensions in the Middle East

7) After World War II, the Soviet Union established satellites in Eastern Europe to

                1.           support the remaining Fascist governments in Eastern Europe

                2.           preserve capitalism in Eastern Europe

                3.           establish democratic governments in Eastern European nations

                4.           expand its power and control over Eastern Europe

8) In the Soviet Union, a negative aspect of the Cold War Era was the

                1.           attempt to preserve democratic ideals

                2.           development of peaceful uses for modern technology

                3.           development of effective means of international cooperation

 4.           high cost of maintaining the arms race

9) “From Stetin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an Iron Curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I might call the Soviet Sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence, but to very high, and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow.”

-Winston Churchill

What is the main idea of this quotation?

                1.           The Soviet Union has expanded its influence throughout Eastern Europe

                2.           The Soviet Union has helped the Eastern Europe improve their standard of living

                3.           The democratic nations of Western Europe have stopped the expansion of Soviet influence in the world

                4.           The Soviet Union will support communist revolutions in Southeast Asia

10) Prior to the 1980’s, the emphasis of the Five-Year Plans in the Soviet Union was on heavy industry. One result was the

                1.           scarcity of consumer goods

                2.           abundance of manufactured goods

                3.           rejection of agricultural planning

                4.           decline in military spending

11) Which was a major reason for the success of Soviet domination in Eastern Europe after World War II?

                1.           Eastern Europeans accepted the doctrine of Pan-Slavism

                2.           the democracies of Western Europe needed greater security

                3.           the Soviet Union had military forces in Eastern Europe as a result of World War II

                4.           Western Europeans feared that Nazism would be rekindled in Eastern Europe

12)   In Eastern Europe during the 1950’s and 1960’s, the Soviet Union responded to challenges to its control by

                1.           allowing free elections, when necessary

                2.           imposing prompt and severe repression

                3.           obtaining United Nations assistance

                4.           granting independence to its satellite nations

13) The expansion of communism into Eastern Europe was a direct result of

                1.           the Crimean war

                2.           the Napoleonic Wars

                3.           World War I

                4.           World War II

14) United States involvement in the Vietnam War and the Soviet Union’s involvement in Afghanistan were motivated mainly by a desire to

                1.           exploit the mineral resources

                2.           support governments that would remain strong allies

                3.           stop the expansion of Japan into the Middle East

                4.           establish independent nation-states in the regions

15) “Warsaw Pact Tanks Invade Budapest”

“Wall Divides Berlin”

“Liberal Czechoslovak Government Replaced”

These historical newspaper headlines were related to

                1.           Mikhail Gorbachev’s introduction of the policy of Glasnost

                2.           Adolf Hitler’s efforts to promote national socialism

                3.           the Soviet Union’s acceptance of capitalism

                4.           attempts by the Soviet Union to strengthen communist control

16) The invasion of Hungary in 1956 by the Soviet Union and the building of the Berlin Wall in 1961 are examples of

                1.           United Nations Security Council resolutions

                2.           Truman Doctrine failures

                3.           Marshall Plan effects

                4.           Cold War Era conflicts

17) Which is a major reason Cuban revolutionary movements were attracted to communism?

                1.           communist groups promised economic reform and better living standards

                2.           business owners and the military were supported by communist groups

                3.           the goal of communism was to encourage religion

                4.           communist leaders promised to reduce Spanish colonialism in the Western Hemisphere

18) The main reason the United Nations sent troops to Korea in 1950 was to

                1.           ensure that food reached areas of the Korean Peninsula affected by famine

                2.           prevent North Korea from conquering the people of South Korea

                3.           force the inspection of nuclear weapons

                4.           restore peace between warring factions of Buddhism and Shinto

19) -Berlin Blockade (1948-1949)

-Premier Khrushchev’s visit to the United States (1959)

-Cuban missile crisis (1962)

-Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1963)

-Joint Apollo-Soyuz space mission (1975)

What does this list of events suggest about the Cold War Era?

                1.           throughout the period, the United States and the Soviet Union were reluctant to solve conflicts

                2.           the level of tension between the United States and the Soviet Union varied

                3.           economics played a key role in causing conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union

 4.           the United Nations was instrumental in reducing tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union

20) Which statement would be consistent with the views of Fidel Castro?

                1.           The spread of communism is the greatest danger facing Latin America

                2.           An American military presence is the key to the defense of Latin America

                3.           Progress and justice in Latin America can only be achieved through revolutionary socialism

 4.           Introducing a free-market system will improve the economies of Latin American nations

21) Which headline concerning the Soviet Union refers to a Cold War event?

                1.           “Yeltsin Assumes Power”

                2.           “Trotsky Forms Red Army

                3.           “Germany Invades USSR”

                4.           “Warsaw Pact Formed”

22) A major development in relations between the Soviet Union and the United States occurred in the late 1980’s when the two nations agreed to

                1.           purchase all their oil from Mexico

                2.           withdraw from the United Nations

                3.           eliminate a group of nuclear missiles

                4.           ban arms sales to developing nations

23) During the 1980’s, the Soviet Union experimented with modifications of its command economy by

                1.           eliminating central planning

                2.           allowing private ownership of major industries

                3.           introducing some market economy strategies

                4.           legalizing independent trade unions

24) In the 30 years after World War II, which area was most influenced by the Soviet Union?

                1.           Southeast Asia

                2.           North Africa

                3.           Eastern Europe

                4.           Central America

25) Which statement best describes the political situation in Eastern Europe during the 1980’s?

                1.           nationalism has often been a strong force for change

                2.           communist governments have gained power through democratic elections

                3.           ethnic rivalries have been eliminated throughout the region

                4.           United States influence has been used to keep communist governments in power

26) In the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev’s policy of Perestroika both sought to

                1.           increase spending of nuclear weapons

                2.           strengthen central planning

                3.           increase production through individual enterprise

                4.           reduce the influence of middle-class farmers

27) During the 1980’s in the Soviet Union, a major element of the economic policy of Perestroika was

                1.           increased collectivization of farms

                2.           more reliance on local and regional economic decision making

                3.           the expanded use of national Five-Year plans

                4.           an emphasis on the redistribution of wealth

28) · Blockade of Berlin

· Operation of the Berlin Airlift

· Organization of the Warsaw Pact

· Construction of the Berlin Wall

These events of the Cold War are examples of

                1.           efforts to prevent military conflict between the superpowers

                2.           situations that increased tensions between communist and democratic nations in Europe

                3.           attempts to weaken the Soviet Union’s control of its Eastern European allies

                4.           policies of peaceful coexistence and détente

Document-Based Short Response Questions

29) The threat of nuclear was obvious in the Cuban missile crisis of 1962. This excerpt, from President John F. Kennedy’s speech to the American people, explains the U.S. position. . . .

We have unmistakable evidence that a series of offensive missile sites is now being built on that island. . . . Cuba has been made into an important strategic base by the presence of these long-range offensive weapons of sudden mass destruction. This is an open threat to the peace and security of all of the Americas. Our objective must be to prevent the use of these missiles against this or any other country. We must secure their withdrawal from the Western Hemisphere. . . . I call upon Chairman Khrushchev to halt and eliminate this secret and reckless threat to world peace.

What is the basis for President Kennedy’s demand that the missiles be removed from Cuba? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

30) The Soviet Union responded to NATO by creating its alliance, the Warsaw Pact.

NATO Members: Great Britain, Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, Republic of

 Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Turkey, Greece

Warsaw Pact Members: German Democratic Republic, Poland, Czechoslovakia,

 Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Soviet Union

Other Communist Nations: Yugoslavia

How do these “satellites” in the Warsaw Pact provide a buffer for the Soviet Union?

31) This is an excerpt from the North Atlantic Treaty, which was signed by the United States, Canada, and ten nations of Western Europe in 1948.

The parties agree than an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or in North America shall

be considered as an attack against them all. They agree that if such an armed attack occurs, each of them

will assist the party or parties so attacked. Each will immediately take whatever action it considers

necessary to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area. It will, if necessary, use armed


What is the purpose of NATO?

32)After Kennedy ordered a blockade of all offensive military equipment being sent into Cuba, Premier Khrushchev responded with this message:

“Mr. President, the Soviet government decided to help Cuba with means of defense against outside attack. These weapons were only meant for defensive purposes. We have supplied them to prevent aggression against Cuba … With respect and confidence I accept the statement you set forth in your message of October 27, 1962. You said then that Cuba will not be attacked or invaded by any country of the Western Hemisphere … We have given the order to discontinue building the installations. We shall dismantle them and withdraw them to the Soviet Union.”

 How does Khrushchev explain why missiles were placed in Cuba?

Why did Khrushchev believe the missiles could now be removed?


Chinese Communist Revolution

World War 1

Civil War

Westward Expansion

The U.S. Constitution

Early River Valley Civilizations

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